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VOA教育报道:大学录取结果该不该由SAT和ACT成绩决定?

kira86 于2018-05-15发布 l 已有人浏览
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SAT(学业能力倾向测验)和ACT(美国大学入学考试)考试成绩,是否应该继续决定大学录取?美国高考是否公平话题引争议。
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Should SAT and ACT Test Results Be Optional in College Admissions?
SAT和ACT成绩是否该成为大学招生非强制因素?
Standardized testing is a major part of applying for admission to colleges and universities in the United States.
标准化测验在美国申请大学时起主要作用。
SAT or ACT results, for example, are just one measure admissions officials use to decide whether to accept an applicant. But many students and parents spend a great deal of time, effort and resources trying to ensure a high score.
比方说,SAT(学业能力倾向测验)和ACT(美国大学入学考试)成绩只是招生官员用来衡量是否接受申请人一项措施。但是,许多学生和家长花费大量的时间、精力和资源来确保自己在考试中得高分。
For some students, testing can be the most difficult part of the application process. And new research has raised debate about the fairness of standardized tests.
对一部分学生来说,测试也许是申请程序中最困难的部分。一项新研究就标准化考试的公平性引起了争论。
Last month, researchers with the National Association for College Admission Counseling published findings from a series of studies on these tests. They looked at the academic records of over 950,000 students at 28 public and private colleges and universities in the U.S.
上个月,全美大学招生咨询协会的研究院发表了对这些测试的一系列研究结果。他们查看了28所美国公立和私立大学的95万多名学生的学术记录。
Unlike most schools, those chosen for the studies do not require applicants to submit SAT or ACT scores. The decision to submit scores is left to the students.
与大多数学校不同,本次研究所选中的大学并不需要申请人提交SAT或ACT的成绩。是否提交成绩由学生自己决定。
The research found one major finding: The similarity in study program completion rates between those who submitted test results and those who did not. Students who chose not to submit test scores performed a little better. They were found to be one to two percent more likely to complete their study programs in four years than those who did submit test scores.
这项研究有一个重大发现:研究发现,提交入学成绩的学生和不提交入学成绩的学生在毕业率方面差不多。而选择不提交入学成绩的学生表现得更好一些。比起提交入学成绩的学生,选择不提交成绩的学生在完成四年学习课程方面的比例可能要高1%到2%。
William Hiss is a writer of the report, and a former admissions officer at Bates College. The private liberal arts college in Lewiston, Maine made college entrance examinations optional 30 years ago.
威廉·希斯是该报告的作者,也曾是一名贝茨学院的招生官员。这所位于缅因州路易斯顿的私立文理学院在30年前就让大学入学考试成为可选可不选的测试。
Hiss says his team's research is proof that standardized tests are not a good measure of how successful a student might be at a given school.
希斯说,他团队的研究证明:标准化测试在评定一个学生在学校是否成功方面并非一个很好的衡量标准。
Hiss argues that this is the case because the tests do not measure all the skills students will need in a college environment. They simply measure how a student operates under time pressure which is not the usual situation for college students.
希斯认为,的确如此,因为考试并不能衡量学生是否具备在大学环境中所需的所有技能。这项考试只能简单的测验学生在时间限制下的表现,而这大学生面对的正常情况并非如此。
If students need to stay up until two o'clock in the morning writing their papers, they do it, he told VOA. "If they are working in a team on an experiment and it takes extra time…they take extra time. If they need help with their writing or math, almost all colleges have writing and math support...So the ways in which standardized testing works are not the ways in which college educations work."
他对美国之音说:“如果学生需要熬夜到凌晨两点写论文,他们就会写到凌晨两点。如果他们在一个团队里做实验,需要花额外的时间,他们就会主动花额外的时间进行实验。如果他们需要在写作和数学方面得到帮助,几乎所有大学都有写作和数学支持。因此,标准化测试的运作方式与大学教育的运作方式是不同的。
Hiss adds that many students lack the skills to succeed in high-speed testing environments. Some may be very strong candidates for college, yet avoid applying because they fear the entrance exams. Such candidates may include people with disabilities and non-native English speakers.
希斯补充道,许多学生不具备顺利完成快速测试环境所需的技能。有些人可能是很强的大学候选人,然而他们因为害怕入学考试而不申请。这些候选人可能还包括残疾人士和非英语为母语的学生。
Hiss notes that first generation students, minority students, as well as those with little money, are especially affected. His research showed that about 42 percent of students who chose not to submit test scores were members of these groups. Some schools saw their minority population increase as much as 11 percent after they ended the entrance exam requirement.
希斯指出,第一代移民学生、少数民族学生以及那些没钱的学生所受到的影响尤其大。他的研究表明,选择不提交入学成绩学生中,有42%的人属于以上所述的群体。一些学校不再要求学生参加入学考试之后,学校发现少数民族学生的人数增加了11%。
Hiss says many students from these groups do not have the same chance to prepare for the tests as wealthier white students.
希斯称,许多来自所述群体的学生没有与白富美学生同等的机会来准备考试。
Oscar Schak agrees. He is a top researcher with the Education Trust, a non-profit organization that works to expand education for disadvantaged populations. He says public schools systems that serve poor and minority communities often lack resources that students in richer areas enjoy. And those students can also often pay for even more assistance, such as private tutoring.
奥斯卡·斯卡克同意希斯的观点。奥斯卡是教育信托基金会的顶尖研究员,教育信托是一个非盈利组织,致力于拓展弱势群体受教育问题。他说,公立学校系统为贫困和少数民族群体提供的资源往往不如赋予地区学生所享受的资源多。富裕地区的学生还可以花钱买到更多的援助,比方说家教。
Because of this, Schack says, colleges should give more weight to other predictors of academic success, such as high school performance.
斯卡克说,正因为如此,大学应该更重视其他学术成就推测因素,比如在高中的表现。
Given that it does raise some barriers... just having to take the exams and pay for the exams, I would argue that institutions should err on the side of de-emphasizing the exams, Schak said.
“考虑到只需要参加考试并为考试成绩买单,这确实引起了一些障碍....我这么认为,机构应该在不强调考试方面试错。”斯卡克说到。
However, Jack Buckley finds several major problems with the claims the recent research is making. Buckley is a top official with the American Institutes for Research. He says the studies have not shown evidence of widespread problems with entrance exams or their use in the admissions process. And, he argues, no thoughtful admissions official would consider only standardized test results of applicants.
然而,杰克. 巴克利发现了最近研究所主张的观点有几大主要问题。巴克利是美国研究机构的高层官员。他说,这些研究并未有证据表明大学入学考试普遍存在的问题或者录取考量方面有问题。他认为,思虑周到的招生官员不会只考虑申请人的标准测试结果。
Buckley notes that the companies that administer the SAT and ACT have made many changes to their tests over the years. Buckley worked with the College Board on it most recent changes to the SAT. They took effect in 2016. He says the changes ensured that the tests are designed in a way that is fair to all students.
巴克利指出,掌管AST和ACT的公司多年以来对他们的测试进行了多次改革。巴克利与美国大学理事会一起参与了SAT的最新几次改革。改革于2016年生效。他说,这些变化确保了测试的设计对所有学生都公平。
Many schools actively accept students with weak test results in order to offer more chances for higher education to disadvantaged populations, Buckley says. Tests also can provide good information about a student's strengths and weaknesses. That way, colleges and universities can better know what support services they need to offer.
巴克利说,许多学校积极接收考试成绩较差的学生,以便为处于不利地位的人群提供更多的高等教育机会。测试还可以在学生的优缺点方面提供非常重要的消息。基于此,高等学校在提供支持服务方面,会有更好的了解。
Blaming a test…for inequality is like blaming a thermometer because a room is hot, Buckley said. "They do not cause those inequalities. It's a piece of information that, were I an admissions officer, I would want to know."
巴克利说:“责怪考试不平等,就像房间太热反而责怪温度计一样。这些考试并未导致所说的不平等问题。这是一个作为一名招生官员的我想要知道的信息。”
Derek Briggs adds that is it not clear that standardized tests create better admissions conditions for wealthier students. He is a professor of education at the University of Colorado in Boulder. Briggs's own research has shown that for-profit services that claim to be able improve test results have little real effect.
德里克. 布里格斯补充说:“标准化测试是否为富有的学生创造了更好的录取条件,还暂不清楚。”布里格斯是科罗拉多大学博尔德分校的教育学教授。布里格斯自己的研究表明,那些声称能提高测试结果的盈利机构,事实上效果甚微。
In fact, his research shows that private lessons led to less than a 20 percent increase on either part of the SAT.
事实上,他的研究表明,私人辅导课程在SAT考试成绩所导致增幅不到20%。
The conventional wisdom is that the effects of the test preparation are much, much higher, he said. "But there's not a lot evidence to support that."
他说:“公众的观点是考试辅导的效果要高很多,但是并没有证据来证明这一点。”
However, Briggs admits his research is about 10 years old.
不过,布里格斯承认他是10年前得出的结论。
I'm Pete Musto. And I'm Caty Weaver.
我是皮特·马斯托。我是凯蒂·韦弗。
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