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美国共和党竞选人为何喜欢抨击中国?(双语)

cocotang 于2015-09-08发布 l 已有人浏览
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当中国国家主席习近平下月抵达华盛顿、对美国进行首次国事访问的时候,他将遭遇到中共在国内不会忍受的那种政治发难。
When Xi Jinping arrives in Washington next month for his first state visit to the US, the Chinese president will be jumping into the kind of political cauldron the Communist party does not tolerate at home.
当中国国家主席习近平下月抵达华盛顿、对美国进行首次国事访问的时候,他将遭遇到中共在国内不会忍受的那种政治发难。
As Beijing struggles to contain the market crash, Republican presidential contenders are taking pot shots at Mr Xi. Scott Walker, the Wisconsin governor, has urged President Barack Obama to rescind his invitation.
在北京方面艰难遏制股市暴跌之际,美国共和党总统竞选人正在口无遮拦地对习近平展开抨击。威斯康星州州长斯科特?沃克(Scott Walker)敦促美国总统巴拉克?奥巴马(Barack Obama)取消邀请。
“Americans are struggling to cope with the fall in today’s markets, driven in part by China’s slowing economy and the fact that they actively manipulate their economy,” Mr Walker said.
沃克表示:“美国人正疲于应对今天的市场下跌,这在一定程度上是中国经济放缓和他们积极操纵经济造成的。”
Mr Walker was following on the heels of Donald Trump, the bombastic real estate magnate leading the Republican polls, who took a break from attacking illegal immigrants to aim his wrath at China. In addition to saying he would serve Mr Xi a Big Mac to protest against the recent Chinese currency devaluation, Mr Trump tweeted: “Markets are crashing — all caused by poor planning and allowing China and Asia to dictate the agenda.”
沃克是在效仿夸夸其谈的房地产大亨唐纳德?特朗普(Donald Trump)。在民调中,特朗普目前在共和党总统竞选人当中处于领先地位。特朗普暂时停止了对非法移民的抨击,转而把怒火洒向中国。除了表示将会为习近平奉上一个“巨无霸”汉堡以抗议最近人民币贬值以外,他还在Twitter上发贴称:“市场正在崩盘——这全都是因糟糕的规划和允许中国和亚洲支配议程所致。”
China has long served as a bogeyman in US presidential elections. Whether Bill Clinton referring to the “butchers of Beijing” in reference to the Tiananmen Square massacre, George W Bush attacking Mr Clinton for being soft on China, or Mr Obama touting the need for alliances to challenge Beijing, US presidential contenders have long lambasted China while vowing to take a tougher stance than the White House incumbent if elected president.
中国在美国总统选举期间长期被妖魔化。无论是比尔?克林顿(Bill Clinton)在提到天安门事件时说“北京的屠夫们”、小布什(George W Bush)抨击克林顿对中国过于温和,还是奥巴马向盟友们兜售挑战中国的必要性,美国总统竞选人向来严厉抨击中国、并承诺一旦当选就会采取比现任总统更为严厉的对华立场。
But some analysts say China is sparking a different degree of anger now for several reasons: its growth as an economic power, its assertive actions in the South China Sea, rampant cyber attacks, theft of intellectual property rights and the creation of a climate that is less welcoming to foreign business.
但一些分析师表示,中国现在引发的不满程度不同以往,原因有如下几点:作为经济大国的崛起,在南中国海的强硬举动,大肆的网络攻击,对知识产权的窃取,以及形成的对外国企业不太友好的氛围。
Frank Jannuzi, president of the Mansfield Foundation, which promotes US-Asia relations, said there had been a bipartisan consensus since Richard Nixon went to China in 1972 that the US would profit by engaging the country. But he said the consensus had almost unravelled because companies had become “increasingly disenchanted” with China.
推动美亚关系发展的智库曼斯菲尔德基金会(Mansfield Foundation)的负责人季浩丰(Frank Jannuzi)表示,自1972年理查德?尼克松(Richard Nixon)访华以来,美国两党形成了美国与中国接触将会受益的共识。但他说,这种共识几乎已经破裂,因为企业“越来越对中国感到失望”。
“In Washington there has always been a debate between the China hawks and the Panda-huggers. The balance keepers used to be business,” said Mr Jannuzi, who advised Joe Biden in his 2008 run to be the Democrats’ nominee for president.
季浩丰表示:“在华盛顿,对中国持鹰派立场的人士和‘拥抱熊猫派’(Panda-huggers)人士之间始终争辩不休。过去维持平衡的是商业。”季浩丰曾经在乔?拜登(Joe Biden) 2008年竞争民主党总统候选人提名时为其提供过咨询服务。
“You are going to see many presidential candidates view China’s moment of economic turmoil as an opportunity to push them?.?.?.?because they can combine the anxiety of the American people about the way China’s economy could hit their retirement accounts with the anxiety that has long been there in elite policy circles about China’s international policy behaviour.”
“你会看到,许多总统竞选人将中国经济动荡的时刻视为推自己一把的机会……因为他们可以同时利用两种焦虑,一种是美国人对中国经济会如何影响他们退休账户的焦虑,另一种是精英政策圈子长期以来对中国国际政策行为的焦虑。”
Chris Johnson, a former China analyst at the Central Intelligence Agency, said the rhetoric on China was “different from the standard stuff” because Beijing refused to address US concerns on issues such as cyber security.
美国中央情报局(CIA)前中国事务分析师克里斯?约翰逊(Chris Johnson)表示,有关中国的言论“不同于标准内容”,因为北京方面拒绝化解美国在网络安全等问题上的担忧。
“The comments from Walker and the others are irresponsible,” said Mr Johnson, “but it does put the administration on the defensive.” ?
约翰逊表示:“沃克和其他人的言论是不负责任的。但它的确让美国政府处于守势。”
Mr Johnson added that China had become a victim of its own success and could not rely on the “hide your strength, bide your time” strategy promoted by former leader Deng Xiaoping. “Suddenly these guys who were doing well, but doing well invisibly, are out there in a way that they weren’t before. They’re an easy target.”
约翰逊补充称,中国已成为自身成功的受害者,无法再仰仗其前领导人邓小平提出的“韬光养晦”战略。“突然之间,这些很厉害但之前不为人注意的家伙以一种他们不曾有过的方式出现在那里。他们很容易成为靶子。”
The China-bashing has implications for Mr Obama, who spent much of this year deflecting demands from Capitol Hill to include binding provisions to prevent currency manipulation in a Pacific Rim trade deal known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Helped by Republicans, the administration saw off legislation to impose trade sanctions on any country deemed to be manipulating its currency for economic gain. But a big component of the White House argument was the perceived success of its diplomacy as signalled by the appreciation of the renminbi in recent years.
抨击中国对奥巴马影响重大,后者在今年花了很多时间说服美国国会改变想法、不再要求在《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(TPP)这一环太平洋贸易协议中加入防范汇率操纵的约束性条款。在共和党的帮助下,美国政府挫败了对任何被视为操纵汇率以获得经济利益的国家实施贸易制裁的立法。但白宫给出的主要论据是,近几年人民币的升值标志着其外交的明显成功。
Beijing has undermined that argument with its devaluation. Moreover, while China is not in the TPP, its move prompted Vietnam, a TPP member, to follow suit, helping critics to bring the question of currencies back to the fore.
人民币贬值破坏了这一论据的说服力。此外,尽管中国没有参与TPP谈判,但它让人民币贬值之举促使TPP谈判成员越南效仿,这让批评者们得以重新把汇率问题当作靶子。
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